Dynamics can be associated either with a note or a general musical direction. To avoid inconsistencies between and amongst the letter abbreviations for dynamics (what is sf vs. sfz, standing alone or with a trailing dynamic that is not always piano), we use the actual letters as the names of these dynamic elements. The other-dynamics element allows other dynamic marks that are not covered here, but many of those should perhaps be included in a more general musical direction element. Dynamics elements may also be combined to create marks not covered by a single element, such as sfmp. These letter dynamic symbols are separated from crescendo, decrescendo, and wedge indications. Dynamic representation is inconsistent in scores. Many things are assumed by the composer and left out, such as returns to original dynamics. Systematic representations are quite complex: for example, Humdrum has at least 3 representation formats related to dynamics. The MusicXML format captures what is in the score, but does not try to be optimal for analysis or synthesis of dynamics.
Contains elements as defined in the following table.
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