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Element: dynamics


Dynamics can be associated either with a note or a general musical direction. To avoid inconsistencies between and amongst the letter abbreviations for dynamics (what is sf vs. sfz, standing alone or with a trailing dynamic that is not always piano), we use the actual letters as the names of these dynamic elements. The other-dynamics element allows other dynamic marks that are not covered here, but many of those should perhaps be included in a more general musical direction element. Dynamics elements may also be combined to create marks not covered by a single element, such as sfmp. These letter dynamic symbols are separated from crescendo, decrescendo, and wedge indications. Dynamic representation is inconsistent in scores. Many things are assumed by the composer and left out, such as returns to original dynamics. Systematic representations are quite complex: for example, Humdrum has at least 3 representation formats related to dynamics. The MusicXML format captures what is in the score, but does not try to be optimal for analysis or synthesis of dynamics.

Derived By

Type dynamics

Name  Type  Required?  Default  Description 
default-x  tenths  No 
default-y  tenths  No 
relative-x  tenths  No 
relative-y  tenths  No 
font-family  comma-separated-text  No 
font-style  font-style  No 
font-size  font-size  No 
font-weight  font-weight  No 
color  color  No 
halign  left-center-right  No 
valign  valign  No  The valign attribute is used to indicate vertical alignment to the top, middle, bottom, or baseline of the text or image. Defaults are implementation-dependent.
placement  above-below  No 
underline  number-of-lines  No 
overline  number-of-lines  No 
line-through  number-of-lines  No 
enclosure  enclosure-shape  No 
Content Model

Contains elements as defined in the following table.

Component  Type  Occurs  Default  Description 
f  empty  1..1 

Forte dynamic marking.

ff  empty  1..1 

Fortissimo dynamic marking.

fff  empty  1..1 

Fortississimo dynamic marking.

ffff  empty  1..1 

Fortissississimo dynamic marking.

fffff  empty  1..1 

fffff dynamic marking.

ffffff  empty  1..1 

ffffff dynamic marking.

fp  empty  1..1 

Forte piano dynamic marking.

fz  empty  1..1 

Sforzando dynamic marking.

mf  empty  1..1 

Mezzo forte dynamic marking.

mp  empty  1..1 

Mezzo piano dynamic marking.

other-dynamics  xs:string  1..1  The other-dynamics element allows other dynamic marks that are not covered in the dynamics type.
p  empty  1..1 

Piano dynamic marking.

pp  empty  1..1 

Pianissimo dynamic markings.

ppp  empty  1..1 

Pianississimo dynamic marking.

pppp  empty  1..1 

Pianissississimo dynamic marking.

ppppp  empty  1..1 

ppppp dynamic marking.

pppppp  empty  1..1 

pppppp dynamic marking.

rf  empty  1..1 

Rinforzando dynamic marking.

rfz  empty  1..1 

Rinforzando dynamic marking.

sf  empty  1..1 

Sforzando dynamic marking.

sffz  empty  1..1 

Sforzato dynamic marking.

sfp  empty  1..1 

Sforzando piano dynamic marking.

sfpp  empty  1..1 

Sforzando pianissimo dynamic marking.

sfz  empty  1..1 

Sforzato dynamic marking.

Referenced By

      <direction placement="below">
          <dynamics default-x="56" default-y="-67" halign="left">

        <offset sound="yes">8</offset>
        <sound dynamics="40"/>


See direction-type


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