You are here: MusicXML Reference > Score Schema (XSD) > Elements > Element: defaults

Element: defaults [group score-header]

Description

The defaults type specifies score-wide defaults for scaling, layout, and appearance.

Derived By

Type defaults

Content Model

Contains elements as defined in the following table.

Component  Type  Occurs  Default  Description 
  1..1 
scaling  scaling  0..1  Margins, page sizes, and distances are all measured in tenths to keep MusicXML data in a consistent coordinate system as much as possible. The translation to absolute units is done with the scaling type, which specifies how many millimeters are equal to how many tenths. For a staff height of 7 mm, millimeters would be set to 7 while tenths is set to 40. The ability to set a formula rather than a single scaling factor helps avoid roundoff errors.
page-layout  page-layout  0..1  Page layout can be defined both in score-wide defaults and in the print element. Page margins are specified either for both even and odd pages, or via separate odd and even page number values. The type is not needed when used as part of a print element. If omitted when used in the defaults element, "both" is the default.
system-layout  system-layout  0..1  A system is a group of staves that are read and played simultaneously. System layout includes left and right margins and the vertical distance from the previous system. The system distance is measured from the bottom line of the previous system to the top line of the current system. It is ignored for the first system on a page. The top system distance is measured from the page's top margin to the top line of the first system. It is ignored for all but the first system on a page.
Sometimes the sum of measure widths in a system may not equal the system width specified by the layout elements due to roundoff or other errors. The behavior when reading MusicXML files in these cases is application-dependent. For instance, applications may find that the system layout data is more reliable than the sum of the measure widths, and adjust the measure widths accordingly.
staff-layout  staff-layout  0..*  Staff layout includes the vertical distance from the bottom line of the previous staff in this system to the top line of the staff specified by the number attribute. The optional number attribute refers to staff numbers within the part, from top to bottom on the system. A value of 1 is assumed if not present. When used in the defaults element, the values apply to all parts. This value is ignored for the first staff in a system.
appearance  appearance  0..1  The appearance type controls general graphical settings for the music's final form appearance on a printed page of display. This includes support for line widths, definitions for note sizes, and standard distances between notation elements, plus an extension element for other aspects of appearance.
music-font  empty-font  0..1 
word-font  empty-font  0..1 
lyric-font  lyric-font  0..*  The lyric-font type specifies the default font for a particular name and number of lyric.
lyric-language  lyric-language  0..*  The lyric-language type specifies the default language for a particular name and number of lyric.
Referenced By
Example
  <defaults>
    <scaling>
      <millimeters>7.1967</millimeters>
      <tenths>40</tenths>
    </scaling>
    <page-layout>
      <page-height>1553</page-height>
      <page-width>1200</page-width>
      <page-margins type="both">
        <left-margin>70</left-margin>
        <right-margin>70</right-margin>
        <top-margin>88</top-margin>
        <bottom-margin>88</bottom-margin>
      </page-margins>
    </page-layout>
    <system-layout>
      <system-margins>
        <left-margin>0</left-margin>
        <right-margin>0</right-margin>
      </system-margins>
      <system-distance>121</system-distance>
      <top-system-distance>70</top-system-distance>
    </system-layout>
    <appearance>
      <line-width type="stem">0.7487</line-width>
      <line-width type="beam">5</line-width>
      <line-width type="staff">0.7487</line-width>
      <line-width type="light barline">0.7487</line-width>
      <line-width type="heavy barline">5</line-width>
      <line-width type="leger">0.7487</line-width>
      <line-width type="ending">0.7487</line-width>
      <line-width type="wedge">0.7487</line-width>
      <line-width type="enclosure">0.7487</line-width>
      <line-width type="tuplet bracket">0.7487</line-width>
      <note-size type="grace">60</note-size>
      <note-size type="cue">60</note-size>
      <distance type="hyphen">120</distance>
      <distance type="beam">8</distance>
    </appearance>
    <music-font font-family="Maestro,engraved" font-size="20.4"/>
    <word-font font-family="Times New Roman" font-size="10.2"/>
  </defaults>

 

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