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Complex Types: MusicXML

Complex Types
Name  Description 
accidental  The accidental type represents actual notated accidentals. Editorial and cautionary indications are indicated by attributes. Values for these attributes are "no" if not present. Specific graphic display such as parentheses, brackets, and size are controlled by the level-display attribute group.
accidental-mark  An accidental-mark can be used as a separate notation or as part of an ornament. When used in an ornament, position and placement are relative to the ornament, not relative to the note.
accidental-text  The accidental-text type represents an element with an accidental value and text-formatting attributes.
accord  The accord type represents the tuning of a single string in the scordatura element. It uses the same group of elements as the staff-tuning element.
accordion-registration  The accordion-registration type is use for accordion registration symbols. These are circular symbols divided horizontally into high, middle, and low sections that correspond to 4', 8', and 16' pipes. Each accordion-high, accordion-middle, and accordion-low element represents the presence of one or more dots in the registration diagram. An accordion-registration element needs to have at least one of the child elements present.
appearance  The appearance type controls general graphical settings for the music's final form appearance on a printed page of display. This includes support for line widths, definitions for note sizes, and standard distances between notation elements, plus an extension element for other aspects of appearance.
arpeggiate  The arpeggiate type indicates that this note is part of an arpeggiated chord.
arrow  The arrow element represents an arrow used for a musical technical indication.
articulations  Articulations and accents are grouped together here.
attributes  The attributes element contains musical information that typically changes on measure boundaries. This includes key and time signatures, clefs, transpositions, and staving. When attributes are changed mid-measure, it affects the music in score order, not in MusicXML document order.
backup  The backup and forward elements are required to coordinate multiple voices in one part, including music on multiple staves. The backup type is generally used to move between voices and staves. Thus the backup element does not include voice or staff elements. Duration values should always be positive, and should not cross measure boundaries or mid-measure changes in the divisions value.
barline  If a barline is other than a normal single barline, it should be represented by a barline type that describes it. This includes information about repeats and multiple endings, as well as line style. Barline data is on the same level as the other musical data in a score - a child of a measure in a partwise score, or a part in a timewise score. This allows for barlines within measures, as in dotted barlines that subdivide measures in complex meters. The two fermata elements allow for fermatas on both sides of the barline (the lower one inverted). If no location is specified, the right barline is the default.
barre  The barre element indicates placing a finger over multiple strings on a single fret. The type is "start" for the lowest pitched string (e.g., the string with the highest MusicXML number) and is "stop" for the highest pitched string.
bar-style-color  The bar-style-color type contains barline style and color information.
bass  The bass type is used to indicate a bass note in popular music chord symbols, e.g. G/C. It is generally not used in functional harmony, as inversion is generally not used in pop chord symbols. As with root, it is divided into step and alter elements, similar to pitches.
bass-alter  The bass-alter type represents the chromatic alteration of the bass of the current chord within the harmony element.
bass-step  The bass-step type represents the pitch step of the bass of the current chord within the harmony element. In some chord styles, the text for the bass-step element may include bass-alter information. In that case, the print-object attribute of the bass-alter element can be set to no.
beam  Beam values include begin, continue, end, forward hook, and backward hook. Up to eight concurrent beams are available to cover up to 1024th notes. Each beam in a note is represented with a separate beam element, starting with the eighth note beam using a number attribute of 1. Note that the beam number does not distinguish sets of beams that overlap, as it does for slur and other elements. Beaming groups are distinguished by being in different voices and/or the presence or absence of grace and cue elements.
beater  The beater type represents pictograms for beaters, mallets, and sticks that do not have different materials represented in the pictogram.
beat-repeat  The beat-repeat type is used to indicate that a single beat (but possibly many notes) is repeated. Both the start and stop of the beat being repeated should be specified. The beat-repeat element specifies a notation style for repetitions. The actual music being repeated needs to be repeated within the MusicXML file. This element specifies the notation that indicates the repeat.
bend  The bend type is used in guitar and tablature. The bend-alter element indicates the number of steps in the bend, similar to the alter element. As with the alter element, numbers like 0.5 can be used to indicate microtones. Negative numbers indicate pre-bends or releases; the pre-bend and release elements are used to distinguish what is intended. A with-bar element indicates that the bend is to be done at the bridge with a whammy or vibrato bar. The content of the element indicates how this should be notated.
bookmark  The bookmark type serves as a well-defined target for an incoming simple XLink.
bracket  Brackets are combined with words in a variety of modern directions. The line-type is solid by default.
breath-mark  The breath-mark element indicates a place to take a breath.
cancel  A cancel element indicates that the old key signature should be cancelled before the new one appears. This will always happen when changing to C major or A minor and need not be specified then. The cancel value matches the fifths value of the cancelled key signature (e.g., a cancel of -2 will provide an explicit cancellation for changing from B flat major to F major).
clef  Clefs are represented by a combination of sign, line, and clef-octave-change elements. Clefs appear at the start of each system unless the print-object attribute has been set to "no" or the additional attribute has been set to "yes".
credit  The credit type represents the appearance of the title, composer, arranger, lyricist, copyright, dedication, and other text and graphics that commonly appears on the first page of a score. The credit-words and credit-image elements are similar to the words and image elements for directions. However, since the credit is not part of a measure, the default-x and default-y attributes adjust the origin relative to the bottom left-hand corner of the first page. The enclosure for credit-words is none by default. By default, a series of credit-words elements within a single credit element follow one another in sequence visually. Non-positional formatting attributes are carried over from the previous element by default. The credit-type element, new in Version 3.0, indicates the purpose behind a credit. Multiple types of data may be combined in a single credit, so multiple elements may be used. Standard values include page number, title, subtitle, composer, arranger, lyricist, and rights.
dashes  The dashes type represents dashes, used for instance with cresc. and dim. marks.
defaults  The defaults type specifies score-wide defaults for scaling, layout, and appearance.
degree  The degree type is used to add, alter, or subtract individual notes in the chord. The print-object attribute can be used to keep the degree from printing separately when it has already taken into account in the text attribute of the kind element. The degree-value and degree-type text attributes specify how the value and type of the degree should be displayed. A harmony of kind "other" can be spelled explicitly by using a series of degree elements together with a root.
degree-alter  The degree-alter type represents the chromatic alteration for the current degree. If the degree-type value is alter or subtract, the degree-alter value is relative to the degree already in the chord based on its kind element. If the degree-type value is add, the degree-alter is relative to a dominant chord (major and perfect intervals except for a minor seventh). The plus-minus attribute is used to indicate if plus and minus symbols should be used instead of sharp and flat symbols to display the degree alteration; it is no by default.
degree-type  The degree-type type indicates if this degree is an addition, alteration, or subtraction relative to the kind of the current chord. The value of the degree-type element affects the interpretation of the value of the degree-alter element. The text attribute specifies how the type of the degree should be displayed in a score.
degree-value  The content of the degree-value type is a number indicating the degree of the chord (1 for the root, 3 for third, etc). The text attribute specifies how the type of the degree should be displayed in a score. The degree-value symbol attribute indicates that a symbol should be used in specifying the degree. If the symbol attribute is present, the value of the text attribute follows the symbol.
direction  A direction is a musical indication that is not attached to a specific note. Two or more may be combined to indicate starts and stops of wedges, dashes, etc.  By default, a series of direction-type elements and a series of child elements of a direction-type within a single direction element follow one another in sequence visually. For a series of direction-type children, non-positional formatting attributes are carried over from the previous element by default.
direction-type  Textual direction types may have more than 1 component due to multiple fonts. The dynamics element may also be used in the notations element. Attribute groups related to print suggestions apply to the individual direction-type, not to the overall direction.
distance  The distance element represents standard distances between notation elements in tenths.
dynamics  Dynamics can be associated either with a note or a general musical direction. To avoid inconsistencies between and amongst the letter abbreviations for dynamics (what is sf vs. sfz, standing alone or with a trailing dynamic that is not always piano), we use the actual letters as the names of these dynamic elements. The other-dynamics element allows other dynamic marks that are not covered here, but many of those should perhaps be included in a more general musical direction element. Dynamics elements may also be combined to create marks not covered by a single element, such as sfmp. These letter dynamic symbols are separated from crescendo, decrescendo, and wedge indications. Dynamic representation is inconsistent in scores. Many things are assumed by the composer and left out, such as returns to original dynamics. Systematic representations are quite complex: for example, Humdrum has at least 3 representation formats related to dynamics. The MusicXML format captures what is in the score, but does not try to be optimal for analysis or synthesis of dynamics.
empty  The empty type represents an empty element with no attributes.
empty-font  The empty-font type represents an empty element with font attributes.
empty-line  The empty-line type represents an empty element with line-shape, line-type, dashed-formatting, print-style and placement attributes.
empty-placement  The empty-placement type represents an empty element with print-style and placement attributes.
empty-print-object-style-align  The empty-print-style-align-object type represents an empty element with print-object and print-style-align attribute groups.
empty-print-style  The empty-print-style type represents an empty element with print-style attribute group.
empty-print-style-align  The empty-print-style-align type represents an empty element with print-style-align attribute group.
empty-trill-sound  The empty-trill-sound type represents an empty element with print-style, placement, and trill-sound attributes.
encoding  The encoding element contains information about who did the digital encoding, when, with what software, and in what aspects. Standard type values for the encoder element are music, words, and arrangement, but other types may be used. The type attribute is only needed when there are multiple encoder elements.
ending  The ending type represents multiple (e.g. first and second) endings. Typically, the start type is associated with the left barline of the first measure in an ending. The stop and discontinue types are associated with the right barline of the last measure in an ending. Stop is used when the ending mark concludes with a downward jog, as is typical for first endings. Discontinue is used when there is no downward jog, as is typical for second endings that do not conclude a piece. The text-x and text-y attributes are offsets that specify where the baseline of the start of the ending text appears, relative to the start of the ending line. The ending element text is used when the text displayed in the ending is different than what appears in the number attribute. The print-object element is used to indicate when an ending is present but not printed, as is often the case for many parts in a full score.
extend  The extend type represents lyric word extension / melisma lines as well as figured bass extensions. The optional type and position attributes are added in Version 3.0 to provide better formatting control.
feature  The feature type is a part of the grouping element used for musical analysis. The type attribute represents the type of the feature and the element content represents its value. This type is flexible to allow for different analyses.
fermata  The fermata text content represents the shape of the fermata sign. An empty fermata element represents a normal fermata. The fermata type is upright if not specified.
figure  The figure type represents a single figure within a figured-bass element.
figured-bass  The figured-bass element represents figured bass notation. Figured bass elements take their position from the first regular note (not a grace note or chord note) that follows in score order. The optional duration element is used to indicate changes of figures under a note. Figures are ordered from top to bottom. The value of parentheses is "no" if not present.
fingering  Fingering is typically indicated 1,2,3,4,5. Multiple fingerings may be given, typically to substitute fingerings in the middle of a note. For guitar and other fretted instruments, the fingering element represents the fretting finger; the pluck element represents the plucking finger.
first-fret  The first-fret type indicates which fret is shown in the top space of the frame; it is fret 1 if the element is not present.
formatted-text  The formatted-text type represents a text element with text-formatting attributes.
forward  The backup and forward elements are required to coordinate multiple voices in one part, including music on multiple staves. The forward element is generally used within voices and staves. Duration values should always be positive, and should not cross measure boundaries or mid-measure changes in the divisions value.
frame  The frame type represents a frame or fretboard diagram used together with a chord symbol. The representation is based on the NIFF guitar grid with additional information.
frame-note  The frame-note type represents each note included in the frame. An open string will have a fret value of 0, while a muted string will not be associated with a frame-note element.
fret  The fret element is used with tablature notation and chord diagrams. Fret numbers start with 0 for an open string and 1 for the first fret.
glissando  Glissando and slide types both indicate rapidly moving from one pitch to the other so that individual notes are not discerned. The distinction is similar to that between NIFF's glissando and portamento elements. A glissando sounds the half notes in between the slide and defaults to a wavy line. The optional text is printed alongside the line.
grace  The grace type indicates the presence of a grace note. The other grace note attributes come from MuseData sound suggestions.
group-barline  The group-barline type indicates if the group should have common barlines.
grouping  The grouping type is used for musical analysis. When the type attribute is "start" or "single", it usually contains one or more feature elements. Feature elements contained within a "stop" type of grouping may be ignored. This element is flexible to allow for different types of analyses. Future versions of the MusicXML format may add elements that can represent more standardized categories of analysis data, allowing for easier data sharing.
group-name  The group-name type describes the name or abbreviation of a part-group element. Formatting attributes in the group-name type are deprecated in Version 2.0 in favor of the new group-name-display and group-abbreviation-display elements.
group-symbol  The group-symbol type indicates how the symbol for a group is indicated in the score.
hammer-on-pull-off  The hammer-on and pull-off elements are used in guitar and fretted instrument notation. Since a single slur can be marked over many notes, the hammer-on and pull-off elements are separate so the individual pair of notes can be specified. The element content can be used to specify how the hammer-on or pull-off should be notated. An empty element leaves this choice up to the application.
handbell  The handbell element represents notation for various techniques used in handbell and handchime music.
harmonic  The harmonic type indicates natural and artificial harmonics. Allowing the type of pitch to be specified, combined with controls for appearance/playback differences, allows both the notation and the sound to be represented. Artificial harmonics can add a notated touching-pitch; artificial pinch harmonics will usually not notate a touching pitch. The attributes for the harmonic element refer to the use of the circular harmonic symbol, typically but not always used with natural harmonics.
harmony  The harmony type is based on Humdrum's **harm encoding, extended to support chord symbols in popular music as well as functional harmony analysis in classical music. If there are alternate harmonies possible, this can be specified using multiple harmony elements differentiated by type. Explicit harmonies have all notes present in the music; implied have some notes missing but implied; alternate represents alternate analyses. The harmony object may be used for analysis or for chord symbols. The print-object attribute controls whether or not anything is printed due to the harmony element. The print-style attribute group sets the default for the harmony, but individual elements can override this with their own print-style values.
harp-pedals  The harp-pedals type is used to create harp pedal diagrams. The pedal-step and pedal-alter elements use the same values as the step and alter elements. For easiest reading, the pedal-tuning elements should follow standard harp pedal order, with pedal-step values of D, C, B, E, F, G, and A.
heel-toe  The heel and toe elements are used with organ pedals.
hole  The hole type represents the symbols used for woodwind and brass fingerings as well as other notations.
hole-closed  The hole-closed type represents whether the hole is closed, open, or half-open.
horizontal-turn  The horizontal-turn type represents turn elements that are horizontal rather than vertical. These are empty elements with print-style, placement, trill-sound, and slash attributes.
identification  Identification contains basic metadata about the score. It includes the information in MuseData headers that may apply at a score-wide, movement-wide, or part-wide level. The creator, rights, source, and relation elements are based on Dublin Core.
image  The image type is used to include graphical images in a score.
instrument  The instrument type distinguishes between score-instrument elements in a score-part. The id attribute is an IDREF back to the score-instrument ID. If multiple score-instruments are specified on a score-part, there should be an instrument element for each note in the part.
interchangeable  The interchangeable type is used to represent the second in a pair of interchangeable dual time signatures, such as the 6/8 in 3/4 (6/8). The parentheses attribute value is yes by default.
inversion  The inversion type represents harmony inversions. The value is a number indicating which inversion is used: 0 for root position, 1 for first inversion, etc.
key  The key type represents a key signature. Both traditional and non-traditional key signatures are supported. If absent, the key signature applies to all staves in the part. Key signatures appear at the start of each system unless the print-object attribute has been set to "no".
key-octave  The key-octave element specifies in which octave an element of a key signature appears. The content specifies the octave value using the same values as the display-octave element.
kind  Kind indicates the type of chord. Degree elements can then add, subtract, or alter from these starting points. Since the kind element is the constant in all the harmony-chord groups that can make up a polychord, many formatting attributes are here. The alignment attributes are for the entire harmony-chord group of which this kind element is a part.
level  The level type is used to specify editorial information for different MusicXML elements.
line-width  The line-width type indicates the width of a line type in tenths. The text content is also expressed in tenths.
link  The link type serves as an outgoing simple XLink. It is also used to connect a MusicXML score with a MusicXML opus. If a relative link is used within a document that is part of a compressed MusicXML file, the link is relative to the root folder of the zip file.
lyric  The lyric type represents text underlays for lyrics, based on Humdrum with support for other formats. Two text elements that are not separated by an elision element are part of the same syllable, but may have different text formatting. The MusicXML 2.0 XSD is more strict than the 2.0 DTD in enforcing this by disallowing a second syllabic element unless preceded by an elision element. The lyric number indicates multiple lines, though a name can be used as well (as in Finale's verse / chorus / section specification). Justification is center by default; placement is below by default. The content of the elision type is used to specify the symbol used to display the elision. Common values are a no-break space (Unicode 00A0), an underscore (Unicode 005F), or an undertie (Unicode 203F).
lyric-font  The lyric-font type specifies the default font for a particular name and number of lyric.
lyric-language  The lyric-language type specifies the default language for a particular name and number of lyric.
measure-layout  The measure-layout type includes the horizontal distance from the previous measure.
measure-numbering  The measure-numbering type describes how frequently measure numbers are displayed on this part. The number attribute from the measure element is used for printing.
measure-repeat  The measure-repeat type is used for both single and multiple measure repeats. The text of the element indicates the number of measures to be repeated in a single pattern. Both the start and the stop of the measure-repeat must be specified. The text of the element is ignored when the type is stop. The measure-repeat element specifies a notation style for repetitions. The actual music being repeated needs to be repeated within the MusicXML file. This element specifies the notation that indicates the repeat.
measure-style  A measure-style indicates a special way to print partial to multiple measures within a part. This includes multiple rests over several measures, repeats of beats, single, or multiple measures, and use of slash notation. The multiple-rest and measure-repeat symbols indicate the number of measures covered in the element content. The beat-repeat and slash elements can cover partial measures. All but the multiple-rest element use a type attribute to indicate starting and stopping the use of the style.
metronome  The metronome type represents metronome marks and other metric relationships. The beat-unit group and per-minute element specify regular metronome marks. The metronome-note and metronome-relation elements allow for the specification of more complicated metric relationships, such as swing tempo marks where two eighths are equated to a quarter note / eighth note triplet.
metronome-beam  The metronome-beam type works like the beam type in defining metric relationships, but does not include all the attributes available in the beam type.
metronome-note  The metronome-note type defines the appearance of a note within a metric relationship mark.
metronome-tuplet  The metronome-tuplet type uses the same element structure as the time-modification element along with some attributes from the tuplet element.
midi-device  The midi-device type corresponds to the DeviceName meta event in Standard MIDI Files. Unlike the DeviceName meta event, there can be multiple midi-device elements per MusicXML part starting in MusicXML 3.0.
midi-instrument  The midi-instrument type defines MIDI 1.0 instrument playback. The midi-instrument element can be a part of either the score-instrument element at the start of a part, or the sound element within a part. The id attribute refers to the score-instrument affected by the change.
miscellaneous  If a program has other metadata not yet supported in the MusicXML format, it can go in the miscellaneous element. The miscellaneous type puts each separate part of metadata into its own miscellaneous-field type.
miscellaneous-field  If a program has other metadata not yet supported in the MusicXML format, each type of metadata can go in a miscellaneous-field element. The required name attribute indicates the type of metadata the element content represents.
mordent  The mordent type is used for both represents the mordent sign with the vertical line and the inverted-mordent sign without the line. The long attribute is "no" by default.
multiple-rest  The text of the multiple-rest type indicates the number of measures in the multiple rest. Multiple rests may use the 1-bar / 2-bar / 4-bar rest symbols, or a single shape. The element text is ignored when the type is stop.
name-display  The name-display type is used for exact formatting of multi-font text in part and group names to the left of the system. The print-object attribute can be used to determine what, if anything, is printed at the start of each system. Enclosure for the display-text element is none by default. Language for the display-text element is Italian ("it") by default.
non-arpeggiate  The non-arpeggiate type indicates that this note is at the top or bottom of a bracket indicating to not arpeggiate these notes. Since this does not involve playback, it is only used on the top or bottom notes, not on each note as for the arpeggiate type.
notations  Notations refer to musical notations, not XML notations. Multiple notations are allowed in order to represent multiple editorial levels. The print-object attribute, added in Version 3.0, allows notations to represent details of performance technique, such as fingerings, without having them appear in the score.
note  Notes are the most common type of MusicXML data. The MusicXML format keeps the MuseData distinction between elements used for sound information and elements used for notation information (e.g., tie is used for sound, tied for notation). Thus grace notes do not have a duration element. Cue notes have a duration element, as do forward elements, but no tie elements. Having these two types of information available can make interchange considerably easier, as some programs handle one type of information much more readily than the other.
notehead  The notehead element indicates shapes other than the open and closed ovals associated with note durations. For the enclosed shapes, the default is to be hollow for half notes and longer, and filled otherwise. The filled attribute can be set to change this if needed.
notehead-text  The notehead-text type represents text that is displayed inside a notehead, as is done in some educational music. It is not needed for the numbers used in tablature or jianpu notation. The presence of a TAB or jianpu clefs is sufficient to indicate that numbers are used. The display-text and accidental-text elements allow display of fully formatted text and accidentals.
note-size  The note-size type indicates the percentage of the regular note size to use for notes with a cue and large size as defined in the type element. The grace type is used for notes of cue size that that include a grace element. The cue type is used for all other notes with cue size, whether defined explicitly or implicitly via a cue element. The large type is used for notes of large size. The text content represents the numeric percentage. A value of 100 would be identical to the size of a regular note as defined by the music font.
note-type  The note-type type indicates the graphic note type. Values range from 256th to long.
octave-shift  The octave shift type indicates where notes are shifted up or down from their true pitched values because of printing difficulty. Thus a treble clef line noted with 8va will be indicated with an octave-shift down from the pitch data indicated in the notes. A size of 8 indicates one octave; a size of 15 indicates two octaves.
offset  An offset is represented in terms of divisions, and indicates where the direction will appear relative to the current musical location. This affects the visual appearance of the direction. If an element within a direction includes a default-x attribute, the offset value will be ignored when determining the appearance of that element.
opus  The opus type represents a link to a MusicXML opus document that composes multiple MusicXML scores into a collection.
ornaments  Ornaments can be any of several types, followed optionally by accidentals. The accidental-mark element's content is represented the same as an accidental element, but with a different name to reflect the different musical meaning.
other-appearance  The other-appearance type is used to define any graphical settings not yet in the current version of the MusicXML format. This allows extended representation, though without application interoperability.
other-direction  The other-direction type is used to define any direction symbols not yet in the current version of the MusicXML format. This allows extended representation, though without application interoperability.
other-notation  The other-notation type is used to define any notations not yet in the MusicXML format. This allows extended representation, though without application interoperability. It handles notations where more specific extension elements such as other-dynamics and other-technical are not appropriate.
other-play  The other-play element represents other types of playback. The required type attribute indicates the type of playback to which the element content applies.
page-layout  Page layout can be defined both in score-wide defaults and in the print element. Page margins are specified either for both even and odd pages, or via separate odd and even page number values. The type is not needed when used as part of a print element. If omitted when used in the defaults element, "both" is the default.
page-margins  Page margins are specified either for both even and odd pages, or via separate odd and even page number values.
part-group  The part-group element indicates groupings of parts in the score, usually indicated by braces and brackets. Braces that are used for multi-staff parts should be defined in the attributes element for that part. The part-group start element appears before the first score-part in the group. The part-group stop element appears after the last score-part in the group.  The number attribute is used to distinguish overlapping and nested part-groups, not the sequence of groups. As with parts, groups can have a name and abbreviation. Values for the child elements are ignored at the stop of a group.  A part-group element is not needed for a single multi-staff part. By default, multi-staff parts include a brace symbol and (if appropriate given the bar-style) common barlines. The symbol formatting for a multi-staff part can be more fully specified using the part-symbol element.
part-list  The part-list identifies the different musical parts in this movement. Each part has an ID that is used later within the musical data. Since parts may be encoded separately and combined later, identification elements are present at both the score and score-part levels. There must be at least one score-part, combined as desired with part-group elements that indicate braces and brackets. Parts are ordered from top to bottom in a score based on the order in which they appear in the part-list.
part-name  The part-name type describes the name or abbreviation of a score-part element. Formatting attributes for the part-name element are deprecated in Version 2.0 in favor of the new part-name-display and part-abbreviation-display elements.
part-symbol  The part-symbol type indicates how a symbol for a multi-staff part is indicated in the score; brace is the default value. The top-staff and bottom-staff elements are used when the brace does not extend across the entire part. For example, in a 3-staff organ part, the top-staff will typically be 1 for the right hand, while the bottom-staff will typically be 2 for the left hand. Staff 3 for the pedals is usually outside the brace.
pedal  The pedal type represents piano pedal marks. The change type indicates a pedal lift and retake indicated with an inverted V marking. The continue type allows more precise formatting across system breaks and for more complex pedaling lines. The alignment attributes are ignored if the line attribute is yes.
pedal-tuning  The pedal-tuning type specifies the tuning of a single harp pedal.
percussion  The percussion element is used to define percussion pictogram symbols. Definitions for these symbols can be found in Kurt Stone's "Music Notation in the Twentieth Century" on pages 206-212 and 223. Some values are added to these based on how usage has evolved in the 30 years since Stone's book was published.
per-minute  The per-minute type can be a number, or a text description including numbers. If a font is specified, it overrides the font specified for the overall metronome element. This allows separate specification of a music font for the beat-unit and a text font for the numeric value, in cases where a single metronome font is not used.
pitch  Pitch is represented as a combination of the step of the diatonic scale, the chromatic alteration, and the octave.
placement-text  The placement-text type represents a text element with print-style and placement attribute groups.
play  The play type, new in Version 3.0, specifies playback techniques to be used in conjunction with the instrument-sound element. When used as part of a sound element, it applies to all notes going forward in score order. When used as part of a note element, it applies to the current note only.
principal-voice  The principal-voice element represents principal and secondary voices in a score, either for analysis or for square bracket symbols that appear in a score. The content of the principal-voice element is used for analysis and may be any text value. When used for analysis separate from any printed score markings, the symbol attribute should be set to "none".
print  The print type contains general printing parameters, including the layout elements defined in the layout.mod file. The part-name-display and part-abbreviation-display elements used in the score.mod file may also be used here to change how a part name or abbreviation is displayed over the course of a piece. They take effect when the current measure or a succeeding measure starts a new system. Layout elements in a print statement only apply to the current page, system, staff, or measure. Music that follows continues to take the default values from the layout included in the defaults element.
repeat  The repeat type represents repeat marks. The start of the repeat has a forward direction while the end of the repeat has a backward direction. Backward repeats that are not part of an ending can use the times attribute to indicate the number of times the repeated section is played.
rest  The rest element indicates notated rests or silences. Rest elements are usually empty, but placement on the staff can be specified using display-step and display-octave elements.
root  The root type indicates a pitch like C, D, E vs. a function indication like I, II, III. It is used with chord symbols in popular music. The root element has a root-step and optional root-alter element similar to the step and alter elements, but renamed to distinguish the different musical meanings.
root-alter  The root-alter type represents the chromatic alteration of the root of the current chord within the harmony element. In some chord styles, the text for the root-step element may include root-alter information. In that case, the print-object attribute of the root-alter element can be set to no.
root-step  The root-step type represents the pitch step of the root of the current chord within the harmony element.
scaling  Margins, page sizes, and distances are all measured in tenths to keep MusicXML data in a consistent coordinate system as much as possible. The translation to absolute units is done with the scaling type, which specifies how many millimeters are equal to how many tenths. For a staff height of 7 mm, millimeters would be set to 7 while tenths is set to 40. The ability to set a formula rather than a single scaling factor helps avoid roundoff errors.
scordatura  Scordatura string tunings are represented by a series of accord elements, similar to the staff-tuning elements. Strings are numbered from high to low.
score-instrument  The score-instrument type represents a single instrument within a score-part. As with the score-part type, each score-instrument has a required ID attribute, a name, and an optional abbreviation.  A score-instrument type is also required if the score specifies MIDI 1.0 channels, banks, or programs. An initial midi-instrument assignment can also be made here. MusicXML software should be able to automatically assign reasonable channels and instruments without these elements in simple cases, such as where part names match General MIDI instrument names.
score-part  Each MusicXML part corresponds to a track in a Standard MIDI Format 1 file. The score-instrument elements are used when there are multiple instruments per track. The midi-device element is used to make a MIDI device or port assignment for the given track or specific MIDI instruments. Initial midi-instrument assignments may be made here as well.
slash  The slash type is used to indicate that slash notation is to be used.
slide  Glissando and slide types both indicate rapidly moving from one pitch to the other so that individual notes are not discerned. The distinction is similar to that between NIFF's glissando and portamento elements. A slide is continuous between two notes and defaults to a solid line. The optional text for a is printed alongside the line.
slur  Slur types are empty. Most slurs are represented with two elements: one with a start type, and one with a stop type. Slurs can add more elements using a continue type. This is typically used to specify the formatting of cross-system slurs, or to specify the shape of very complex slurs.
sound  The sound element contains general playback parameters. They can stand alone within a part/measure, or be a component element within a direction.
Tempo is expressed in quarter notes per minute. If 0, the sound-generating program should prompt the user at the time of compiling a sound (MIDI) file.
Dynamics (or MIDI velocity) are expressed as a percentage of the default forte value (90 for MIDI 1.0).
MIDI devices, MIDI instruments, and playback techniques are changed using the midi-device, midi-instrument, and play elements. When there are multiple instances of these elements, they should be grouped together by instrument using the id attribute values.
The offset element is used to indicate that the sound takes place offset from the current score position. If the sound element is a child of a direction element, the sound offset element overrides the direction offset element if both elements are present. Note that the offset reflects the intended musical position for the change in sound. It should not be used to compensate for latency issues in particular hardware configurations.
staff-details  The staff-details element is used to indicate different types of staves. The print-object attribute is used to indicate when a staff is not printed in a part, usually in large scores where empty parts are omitted. It is yes by default. If print-spacing is yes while print-object is no, the score is printed in cutaway format where vertical space is left for the empty part.
staff-layout  Staff layout includes the vertical distance from the bottom line of the previous staff in this system to the top line of the staff specified by the number attribute.
staff-tuning  The staff-tuning type specifies the open, non-capo tuning of the lines on a tablature staff.
stem  Stems can be down, up, none, or double. For down and up stems, the position attributes can be used to specify stem length. The relative values specify the end of the stem relative to the program default. Default values specify an absolute end stem position. Negative values of relative-y that would flip a stem instead of shortening it are ignored. A stem element associated with a rest refers to a stemlet.
stick  The stick type represents pictograms where the material of the stick, mallet, or beater is included.
string  The string type is used with tablature notation, regular notation (where it is often circled), and chord diagrams. String numbers start with 1 for the highest string.
string-mute  The string-mute type represents string mute on and mute off symbols.
strong-accent  The strong-accent type indicates a vertical accent mark.
style-text  The style-text type represents a text element with a print-style attribute group.
supports  The supports type indicates if a MusicXML encoding supports a particular MusicXML element. This is recommended for elements like beam, stem, and accidental, where the absence of an element is ambiguous if you do not know if the encoding supports that element. For Version 2.0, the supports element is expanded to allow programs to indicate support for particular attributes or particular values. This lets applications communicate, for example, that all system and/or page breaks are contained in the MusicXML file.
system-dividers  The system-dividers element indicates the presence or absence of system dividers (also known as system separation marks) between systems displayed on the same page. Dividers on the left and right side of the page are controlled by the left-divider and right-divider elements respectively. The default vertical position is half the system-distance value from the top of the system that is below the divider. The default horizontal position is the left and right system margin, respectively.  When used in the print element, the system-dividers element affects the dividers that would appear between the current system and the previous system.
system-layout  A system is a group of staves that are read and played simultaneously. System layout includes left and right margins and the vertical distance from the previous system. The system distance is measured from the bottom line of the previous system to the top line of the current system. It is ignored for the first system on a page. The top system distance is measured from the page's top margin to the top line of the first system. It is ignored for all but the first system on a page. Sometimes the sum of measure widths in a system may not equal the system width specified by the layout elements due to roundoff or other errors. The behavior when reading MusicXML files in these cases is application-dependent. For instance, applications may find that the system layout data is more reliable than the sum of the measure widths, and adjust the measure widths accordingly.
system-margins  System margins are relative to the page margins. Positive values indent and negative values reduce the margin size.
technical  Technical indications give performance information for individual instruments.
text-element-data  The text-element-data type represents a syllable or portion of a syllable for lyric text underlay. A hyphen in the string content should only be used for an actual hyphenated word. Language names for text elements come from ISO 639, with optional country subcodes from ISO 3166.
text-font-color  The text-font-color type represents text with optional font and color information. It is used for the elision element.
tie  The tie element indicates that a tie begins or ends with this note. The tie element indicates sound; the tied element indicates notation.
tied  The tied type represents the notated tie. The tie element represents the tie sound.
time  Time signatures are represented by the beats element for the numerator and the beat-type element for the denominator. Multiple pairs of beat and beat-type elements are used for composite time signatures with multiple denominators, such as 2/4 + 3/8. A composite such as 3+2/8 requires only one beat/beat-type pair. The print-object attribute allows a time signature to be specified but not printed, as is the case for excerpts from the middle of a score. The value is "yes" if not present.
time-modification  Time modification indicates tuplets, double-note tremolos, and other durational changes. A time-modification element shows how the cumulative, sounding effect of tuplets and double-note tremolos compare to the written note type represented by the type and dot elements. Nested tuplets and other notations that use more detailed information need both the time-modification and tuplet elements to be represented accurately.
transpose  The transpose type represents what must be added to a written pitch to get a correct sounding pitch.
tremolo  The tremolo ornament can be used to indicate either single-note or double-note tremolos. Single-note tremolos use the single type, while double-note tremolos use the start and stop types. The default is "single" for compatibility with Version 1.1. The text of the element indicates the number of tremolo marks and is an integer from 0 to 8. Note that the number of attached beams is not included in this value, but is represented separately using the beam element. When using double-note tremolos, the duration of each note in the tremolo should correspond to half of the notated type value. A time-modification element should also be added with an actual-notes value of 2 and a normal-notes value of 1. If used within a tuplet, this 2/1 ratio should be multiplied by the existing tuplet ratio.  Using repeater beams for indicating tremolos is deprecated as of MusicXML 3.0.
tuplet  A tuplet element is present when a tuplet is to be displayed graphically, in addition to the sound data provided by the time-modification elements. The line-shape attribute is used to specify whether the bracket is straight or in the older curved or slurred style. It is straight by default. Whereas a time-modification element shows how the cumulative, sounding effect of tuplets and double-note tremolos compare to the written note type, the tuplet element describes how this is displayed. The tuplet element also provides more detailed representation information than the time-modification element, and is needed to represent nested tuplets and other complex tuplets accurately.
tuplet-dot  The tuplet-dot type is used to specify dotted normal tuplet types.
tuplet-number  The tuplet-number type indicates the number of notes for this portion of the tuplet.
tuplet-portion  The tuplet-portion type provides optional full control over tuplet specifications. It allows the number and note type (including dots) to be set for the actual and normal portions of a single tuplet. If any of these elements are absent, their values are based on the time-modification element.
tuplet-type  The tuplet-type type indicates the graphical note type of the notes for this portion of the tuplet.
typed-text  The typed-text type represents a text element with a type attributes.
unpitched  The unpitched type represents musical elements that are notated on the staff but lack definite pitch, such as unpitched percussion and speaking voice.
virtual-instrument  The virtual-instrument element defines a specific virtual instrument used for an instrument sound.
wavy-line  Wavy lines are one way to indicate trills. When used with a measure element, they should always have type="continue" set.
wedge  The wedge type represents crescendo and diminuendo wedge symbols. The line-type is solid by default.
work  Works are optionally identified by number and title. The work type also may indicate a link to the opus document that composes multiple scores into a collection.


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